Cave salamander (Proteus anguinus)

Cave salamander on rock
IUCN Red List species status – Vulnerable VULNERABLE

Top facts

  • As it spends its entire life in darkness, the cave salamander has very poorly developed eyes and is blind.
  • The cave salamander has no pigment in its skin, giving its body a pasty white appearance.
  • The cave salamander does not undergo a clear metamorphosis and retains many juvenile features, such as gills, throughout its life.
  • The cave salamander is long-lived, potentially reaching up to 58 years of age.
Loading more images and videos...

Cave salamander fact file

Cave salamander description

GenusProteus (1)

The cave salamander (Proteus anguinus) is a rare amphibian with an unusual appearance, shaped by several million years of living in dark, subterranean caves in central Europe (2). Its skin lacks pigment, giving its body a white, pasty appearance. It also has a pink hue due to blood capillaries near the skin, and as its translucency shows the contours of the internal organs. This strange fleshy skin led to this species' common name, the human fish, as people thought this bizarre amphibian resembled a small human (3). This cave dwelling amphibian's four limbs are short and feeble, and its eyes are so poorly developed that it is blind (2). Its head is elongated with a round snout, and on each side of the head there are three distinctive scarlet gill tufts that are used in respiration, although adults develop lungs as well (2). Male cave salamanders are smaller than females, and can be distinguished from females during breeding season by their larger cloaca (3).

Also known as
human fish, olm, proteus, white salamander.
Length: 30 cm (2)

Cave salamander biology

Little is known about the biology of the cave salamander as it lives in caves and is difficult to study. Most observations are therefore from captive specimens. It feeds on insect larvae, molluscs and amphipod crustaceans, detecting its prey in total darkness by using chemical cues in the water (3)

Most male cave salamanders establish a territory during the breeding season, and furiously protect them from other males (3). When a female enters the territory, courtship begins. The male deposits a spermatophore, which the female picks up with her cloaca. Courtship can be repeated several times within a few hours, and the fertilized eggs are held inside the female's body (3). These eggs, 12 to 70 in number, may be deposited beneath a stone, and guarded by the male and female until they hatch. Alternatively, just one or two eggs may develop inside the female, the rest breaking down to provide nutrients for the female and the remaining developing offspring. In this case the female eventually gives birth to well-developed larvae (2). There is no clear metamorphosis and the adult cave salamander maintains many juvenile characteristics throughout its life such as gills. Cave salamanders reach sexual maturity after seven years, and are estimated to live for up to 58 years (3).


Cave salamander range

The cave salamander is found in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Italy and Slovenia (1).


Cave salamander habitat

The cave salamander inhabits underground fresh and well-oxygenated water systems in karst formations, where the water temperature is cool (between 6ºC and 12ºC) (3).


Cave salamander status

The cave salamander is classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Vulnerable


Cave salamander threats

Dependent on large aquatic cave systems, the cave salamander is threatened by tourism, economic changes and industrial pollution as the caves are affected by the land-use above. Cave salamander populations are also under pressure from collectors for the aquarist trade (3).


Cave salamander conservation

The cave salamander is becoming increasingly rare and, as individuals are removed from natural populations by collectors or for research, their ability to recover is reduced (2). This species must be more strictly protected by law, and breeding programs established to enable its survival (2).

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

Find out more

For more information on the cave salamander and other amphibians see:  



This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:



Small blood vessels that form an intricate network throughout the body for the interchange of various substances, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, between blood and tissue cells.
A common opening into which the reproductive, alimentary and urinary systems open.
Diverse group of arthropods (a phylum of animals with jointed limbs and a hard chitinous exoskeleton) characterised by the possession of two pairs of antennae, one pair of mandibles (parts of the mouthparts used for handling and processing food) and two pairs of maxillae (appendages used in eating, which are located behind the mandibles). Includes crabs, lobsters, shrimps, slaters, woodlice and barnacles.
Karst formations
Areas of irregular limestone in which erosion has produced sinkholes, underground streams, and caverns.
Stage in an animal’s lifecycle after it hatches from the egg. Larvae are typically very different in appearance to adults; they are able to feed and move around but usually are unable to reproduce.
An abrupt physical change from the larval to the adult form.
Gelatinous jelly cone with a sperm cap deposited by a male during courtship and picked up by the cloacal lips of the female.
Living underground, in caves or groundwater.


  1. IUCN Red List (May, 2009)
  2. Halliday, T. and Adler, K. (2002) The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  3. AmphibiaWeb – cave salamander (November, 2003)

Image credit

Cave salamander on rock  
Cave salamander on rock

© Wild Wonders of Europe / Hodalic /

Nature Picture Library
5a Great George Street
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 117 911 4675
Fax: +44 (0) 117 911 4699


Link to this photo

Arkive species - Cave salamander (Proteus anguinus) Embed this Arkive thumbnail link ("portlet") by copying and pasting the code below.

Terms of Use - The displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to Arkive's online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. It may NOT be used within Apps.

Read more about



MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite Arkive images and videos and share them with friends.

Play the Team WILD game:

Team WILD, an elite squadron of science superheroes, needs your help! Your mission: protect and conserve the planet’s species and habitats from destruction.

Conservation in Action

Which species are on the road to recovery? Find out now »

This species is featured in:

This species is featured in the Mediterranean Basin eco-region

Help us share the wonders of the natural world. Donate today!


Back To Top