Hawaiian crow -- 夏威夷乌鸦 (Corvus hawaiiensis)

Hawaiian crow perched on branch
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Hawaiian crow fact file

Hawaiian crow description

GenusCorvus (1)

Known in Hawaii as Alala (4), this species is the most endangered corvid in the world and is the only crow species found in Hawaii. It is a large, sooty, black crow with brownish primaries. The black bill is stout and slightly upturned, the legs are black and the tail is square at the tip. Both sexes and all ages are similar in appearance, but males are slightly larger than females. This species produces a wide variety of calls including a repeated ‘kerruk, kerruk’ and a loud ‘kraa-a-a-ik’ in flight (2).

Also known as
Length: 48 – 50 cm (2)

Hawaiian crow biology

The diet is varied and consists mainly of fruit, but insects and nectar may also be eaten (4). The Hawaiian crow flakes away bark whilst foraging for insects and has also been observed raiding the nests of other bird species. Breeding occurs between March and July (4) - the bulky nests are made of sticks with a cup of soft grasses inside, and are usually located in large trees in isolated stands (2). A clutch can contain between one and five eggs (4). The flight style is strong, and they have been seen tumbling and playing in the air like ravens (2).


Hawaiian crow range

This species is endemic to Hawaii, and is currently found in a 260 km² area of central Kona, on a single ranch (4). It was formerly common and bred throughout the slopes of the volcanoes of Hualalai and Mauna Loa (4). By 1987, just ten wild individuals remained (2).


Hawaiian crow habitat

The Hawaiian crow inhabits native Hawaiian Ohia forests or Ohia and Koa mixed forest. It shows a marked preference for open forests (4).


Hawaiian crow status

Classified as Extinct in the Wild (EX) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (3).

IUCN Red List species status – Extinct in the Wild


Hawaiian crow threats

Habitat loss and illegal hunting are thought to be the main reasons for the decline of this species. Disease, over-grazing (4) and introduced mammalian predators such as rats, feral cats and mongooses (5) are also likely to have played a part (4). At present, a further threat has arisen as a result of the very low population size. This makes captive breeding more difficult; inbreeding of relatives may be more likely and the gene pool is limited (4). Small populations are also vulnerable to chance events such as severe storms and diseases.


Hawaiian crow conservation

This species is protected by law. A small captive population of ten individuals (1) is held on the island of Maui, and chicks have been successfully raised. Eggs had also been taken from the wild, reared and re-released successfully. In 1994 the population consisted of three wild breeding pairs from a wild population of 8 - 12 individuals, three breeding pairs from the 10 birds held in captivity, and nine captive-reared chicks to be reintroduced to the wild; the total population was therefore estimated to be around 31 birds (1). The wild population is now extinct and only captive held birds remain alive (3).

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.


Authenticated (31/5/02) by Donna Ball, Wildlife Biologist Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, and Alan Lieberman, Manager of the Keauhou Bird Conservation Center.



Of the family Corvidae, crows, jays, magpies, nutcrackers and rooks.
Species or taxonomic group which is confined to a particular country or geographic area.
In birds, the outer flight feathers.


  1. UNEP-WCMC (October, 2002)
  2. & Burn, H. and Madge, S. (1999) Helm Identification Guides: Crows and Jays. Christopher Helm (Publishers) Ltd, London.
  3. IUCN Red List 2004 categories (November, 2004)
  4. UNEP-WCMC Species data (October, 2002)
  5. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Centre (October, 2002)

Image credit

Hawaiian crow perched on branch  
Hawaiian crow perched on branch

© Jack Jeffrey Photography

Jack Jeffrey
P.O. Box 40
United States of America
Tel: +1 (808) 933 6915 (Ex28)
Fax: +1 (808) 933 6917


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