Bimaculated lark -- 二斑百灵 (Melanocorypha bimaculata)

Adult bimaculated lark
Loading more images and videos...

Bimaculated lark fact file

Bimaculated lark description

GenusMelanocorypha (1)

A black-streaked, ground-dwelling bird, the cryptic plumage of the bimaculated lark offers excellent camouflage against its dry, grassy habitat. The heavily-streaked upperparts are grey-brown, and the underparts are whitish to pale brown. A prominent white stripe stretches through the eyes, and a black line runs between the eyes and the base of the bill (2). There is also a conspicuous black-brown crescent-shaped patch on the upper-breast (3). The long wings and short tail are dark grey-brown, and the heavy bill and legs are yellow or pinkish. The male and female bimaculated lark are similar in appearance, although the female is typically smaller in size, but the juvenile has a whitish scaled appearance on the upperparts (2). Due to its camouflaged plumage and habitat of crouching motionless to escape danger, this bird is more often heard than seen, and can also be identified by its sweet, twittering song and harsher, more grating calls (2) (3) (4).   

Also known as
black-breasted lark, calandra lark, calandra-lark, eastern calandra lark, eastern calandra-lark.
Alouette calandre orientale.
Length: 17 - 18 cm (2)
47 - 62 g (2)

Bimaculated lark biology

The bimaculated lark forages on the ground for a variety of invertebrates and seeds, all the while walking and running rather than hopping like most other birds. It breeds from late-March through to mid-August, and at the start of the breeding season the male attracts a mate by singing while flying in irregular circles with slow, jerky wing-beats. Once a pair bond is established, the female builds a loose, cup-shaped nest out of grass and roots, in a depression in the ground that is sheltered by a tussock of grass or a small bush. A clutch of three to six eggs (usually four or five) is laid and incubated by the female for around 13 or 14 days. The young leave the nest after 9 to 12 days, but they cannot fly until they reach around 15 to 16 days of age (2).


Bimaculated lark range

The bimaculated lark breeds in Turkey and much of the Caucasus in Eastern Europe, and across several countries in Central Asia and the northern parts of the Middle East (2) (5). Before the onset of winter, it migrates southwards to warmer climates in north-east Africa, the southern Middle East and northern Arabian Peninsula, and north-west India (2).   


Bimaculated lark habitat

A bird of open country, the bimaculated lark inhabits rocky mountainous or hilly areas, with stony slopes and short grass (2) (6). It has been recorded up to altitudes of around 1,500 metres in Turkey and 2,000 metres in Kazakhstan (6) (7).   


Bimaculated lark status

Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Least Concern


Bimaculated lark threats

The bimaculated lark has a huge global population, with one million breeding birds estimated to reside in the European part of its range alone in 1994, and is therefore not currently considered to be threatened with extinction (5) (8). It is, however, like other birds of open country and cultivation, potentially vulnerable to land-use changes and the use of pesticides (8). It is also kept as a pet song bird in parts of its range (3). In Sudan, the bimaculated lark is considered a pest species, as large feeding flocks can damage crops, and is actively poisoned as a control measure (9).  


Bimaculated lark conservation

In the absence of any major threats to the bimaculated lark, it has not been the target of any specific conservation measures (8).

Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi is a principal sponsor of ARKive. EAD is working to protect and conserve the environment as well as promoting sustainable development in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.
View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

Find out more

To find out more about the conservation of birds, see:



This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:



To keep eggs warm so that development is possible.
Animals with no backbone, such as insects, worms, molluscs, corals and sea anemones.


  1. IUCN Red List (September, 2010)
  2. del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. (2004) Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 9: Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
  3. Lawrence, W.R. (1895) The Valley of Kashmir. London H. Frowde, London.
  4. Firouz, E. (2005) The Complete Fauna of Iran. I. B. Tauris Publishers, London.
  5. BirdLife International. (2004) Birds in Europe: Population Estimates, Trends and Conservation Status. NHBS, Totnes.
  6. Birds of Kazakhstan (September, 2010)
  7. Jonsson, L. (1980) Birds of the Mediterranean and Alps. Croom Helm, London.
  8. BirdLife International (September, 2010)
  9. El Sadwig Awad Beshir Plant Protection Department  (1978) The Black-breasted Lark (Melanocorypha bimaculata), a Pest of Sorghum in Butana Region, Gezira Province, Sudan. Proceedings of the 1978 Vertebrate Pest Conference, University of Nebraska.

Image credit

Adult bimaculated lark  
Adult bimaculated lark

© Markus Varesvuo /

Nature Picture Library
5a Great George Street
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 117 911 4675
Fax: +44 (0) 117 911 4699


Link to this photo

Arkive species - Bimaculated lark (Melanocorypha bimaculata) Embed this Arkive thumbnail link ("portlet") by copying and pasting the code below.

Terms of Use - The displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to Arkive's online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. It may NOT be used within Apps.

Read more about



MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite Arkive images and videos and share them with friends.

Play the Team WILD game:

Team WILD, an elite squadron of science superheroes, needs your help! Your mission: protect and conserve the planet’s species and habitats from destruction.

Conservation in Action

Which species are on the road to recovery? Find out now »

This species is featured in:

This species is featured in Jewels of the UAE, which showcases biodiversity found in the United Arab Emirates in association with the Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi.

Help us share the wonders of the natural world. Donate today!


Back To Top