The main threat to the Sri Lanka whistling thrush is the clearance of its upland forest habitat, which has left this rare species with a very small, severely fragmented population and range that are undergoing continuing declines. Montane forests have been extensively cleared for conversion to timber plantations and agriculture, firewood collection, particularly around Nuwara Eliya, Maskeliya and Bogowantaalaw, and gem mining. Even some ‘protected forests’ are unable to escape these threats, and continue to be degraded and fragmented. In particular, the replacement of natural, mixed forests containing fruiting trees with single-species plantations has badly affected this bird by reducing its available food supply. In addition, streams within this species’ range are becoming polluted with run-off chemicals such as insecticides and pesticides from nearby vegetable farms, almost certainly harming stream-dependent birds such as the Sri Lanka Whistling-thrush. It has also been speculated that mountain forest die-back may be the result of acid clouds, rain and mist, caused by air-pollution (3) (4).