Pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus bargibanti)

Pregnant male pygmy seahorse camouflaged in fan coral
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Pygmy seahorse fact file

Pygmy seahorse description

GenusHippocampus (1)

The pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus bargibanti) is undoubtedly one of the most well camouflaged species in the oceans, being extremely difficult to spot amongst the gorgonian coral it inhabits. So effective is this camouflage that the species wasn’t actually discovered until its host gorgonian was being examined in a lab. Large, bulbous tubercles cover this species’ body and match the colour and shape of the polyps of its host species of gorgonian coral, while its body matches the gorgonian stem. Two colour morphs exist: pale grey or purple individuals scattered with pink or red tubercles are found on the similarly coloured gorgonian coral Muricella plectana, and yellow individuals with orange tubercles are found on gorgonian coral Muricella paraplectana (4). It is not known whether individuals can change colour if they change hosts, although the ability to change colour according to their surroundings does exist in some other seahorse species, such as H. whitei (5). Other distinctive pygmy seahorse characteristics include a fleshy head and body, a very short snout, and a long, prehensile tail (4) (6). This is also one of the smallest seahorse species in the world, typically measuring less than 2 centimetres in height (1). The male carries eggs and young concealed within the trunk region (5).

Also known as
Bargibant’s seahorse, common pygmy seahorse.
Maximum height: 2.4 cm (2)

Pygmy seahorse biology

Adults are usually found in pairs or clusters of pairs, with up to 28 pygmy seahorses recorded on a single gorgonian, and may be monogamous (1) (2). Unusually, it is the male, and not the female, that becomes pregnant in seahorses (7). Breeding occurs year-round, and gestation averages two weeks (2) (4), during which the male carries the eggs concealed within his trunk region (5). In one birth witnessed underwater a male ‘gave birth’ to a brood of 34 live young (2). The young look like miniature adult seahorses, are independent from birth, and receive no further parental care (7).


Pygmy seahorse range

The pygmy seahorse is known from coral reefs in the tropical western Pacific around Australia (Queensland), Indonesia, Japan, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines (1) (2).


Pygmy seahorse habitat

Only known to occur on gorgonian corals of the genus Muricella, the pygmy seahorse is typically found between 16 and 40 metres depth (2).


Pygmy seahorse status

The pygmy seahorse is classified as Data Deficient (DD) on the IUCN Red List (1), and listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).

IUCN Red List species status – Data Deficient


Pygmy seahorse threats

Very little is known about the total number of pygmy seahorses, population trends, distribution, or major threats. It has therefore been classified as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List (1). Because of the unusual and attractive colouration of this small seahorse it is possible that it could be being collected for the aquaria trade (1), although no international trade in the species has been recorded (2).


Pygmy seahorse conservation

All seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) are listed on Appendix II of CITES, effective as of May 2004, limiting and regulating their international trade (2). Australian populations of pygmy seahorses are listed under the Australian Wildlife Protection Act, so that export permits are now required, although they are only granted for approved management plans or captive-bred animals. With such limited data available on this fascinating animal, there is an urgent need for further research to be conducted on its biology, ecology, habitat, abundance and distribution, before its status can be properly assessed and conservation measures implemented accordingly (1). The remarkably effective camouflage of this astonishing species may make such surveys particularly challenging, but hopefully it will also help protect it from exploitation, keeping it safe and hidden in the Pacific reefs where it belongs.

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

Find out more

For more information on the pygmy seahorse and other seahorses: 



Authenticated (19/12/2006) by Sara Lourie, Project Seahorse/Redpath Museum, McGill University.



The state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth.
Having only one mate during a breeding season, or throughout the breeding life of a pair.
Capable of grasping.
Small wart-like or angular swellings.


  1. IUCN Red List (October, 2009)
  2. Lourie, S.A., Foster, S.J., Cooper, E.W.T. and Vincent, A.C.J. (2004) A Guide to the Identification of Seahorses. Project Seahorse and TRAFFIC North America, Washington D.C..
  3. CITES (December, 2006)
  4. FishBase (December, 2006)
  5. Lourie, S.A. and Randall, J.E. (2003) A new pygmy seahorse, Hippocampus denise (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) from the Indo-Pacific. Zoological Studies, 42(2): 284 - 291.
  6. Life at the Edge of Reef (December, 2006)
  7. Project Seahorse (December, 2006)

Image credit

Pregnant male pygmy seahorse camouflaged in fan coral  
Pregnant male pygmy seahorse camouflaged in fan coral

© Solvin Zankl /

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