Black coral (Leiopathes glaberrima)

Black coral, Leiopathes glaberrima, skeleton
Loading more images and videos...

Black coral fact file

Black coral description

GenusLeiopathes (1)

One of the oldest known organisms in the sea (2), Leiopathes corals have, like all other black corals (those belonging to the order Antipatharia), a dark skeleton, after which they are named. The black skeleton of Leiopathes corals forms irregularly branching, tree-like structures. It grows in a sympodial manner; rather than the first stem growing continuously upwards with branches arising from it, the first stem will stop growing after a certain time, and a new branch will grow out from the side. This too will eventually terminate growth, and a side branch will continue to grow, and so on (3). The skeleton is covered with polyps, the soft bodied, colourful part of the coral. Each polyp is attached to the skeleton at the base, while the other end bears a mouth surrounded by tentacles (4).


Black coral biology

Very little information is available on Leiopathes corals. Their deep-water habitat suggests that, unlike many other corals, they do not possess the symbiotic algae, zooxanthellae, within their tissues. This means that they are not restricted to shallow, sunlit waters where the zooxanthellae can photosynthesise, and instead are able to inhabit deep and dark waters (6).

It has recently been discovered that Leiopathes corals may be remarkably long-lived species. Research has revealed that Leiopathes glaberrima has a lifespan in excess of 4,000 years, making it the oldest known marine organism in existence (2).


Black coral range

The complete distribution of Leiopathes corals is not clear, but Leiopathes species have been recorded in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans (1).


Black coral habitat

Leiopathes corals are deep water species, known to occur at depths of at least 450 metres (5).


Black coral status

Leiopathes glaberrima listed on Appendix II of CITES (1).


Black coral threats

Many black corals are impacted by over-harvesting for the jewellery trade, where they are highly valued as their dark skeletons can be polished to a lustrous sheen (7).

While Leiopathes glaberrima is currently not harvested, the discovery of its remarkably slow growth rates and old ages suggest that any exploitation of this species would not be sustainable (5), and therefore should be permanently banned (2). Black corals around the world are also known to be impacted by habitat degradation, and recently, a small trade in live specimens for aquariums has been reported (7).


Black coral conservation

Leiopathes corals are listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which means that any trade in this ancient coral that does take place should be carefully regulated, to ensure its future survival (1).

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

Find out more

For further information on the trade in corals see:



This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:



Simple plants that lack roots, stems and leaves but contain the green pigment chlorophyll. Most occur in marine and freshwater habitats.
Photosynthesis is a metabolic process characteristic of plants in which carbon dioxide is broken down, using energy from sunlight absorbed by the green pigment chlorophyll. Organic compounds are made and oxygen is given off as a by-product.
Typically sedentary soft-bodied component of cnidaria, a group of simple aquatic animals including the sea anemones, corals and jellyfish. A polyp comprises a trunk that is fixed at the base, and a mouth that is placed at the opposite end of the trunk and is surrounded by tentacles.
Describing a close relationship between two organisms. This term usually refers to a relationship that benefits both organisms.


  1. CITES (September, 2009)
  2. Science (September, 2008)
  3. Daly, M., Brugler, M.R., Cartwright, P., Collins, A.G., Dawson, M.N., Fautin, D.G., France, S.C., McFadden, C.S., Opresko, D.M., Rodriguez, E., Romano, S.L. and Stake, J.L. (2007) The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa, 1668: 127 - 182.
  4. Barnes, R.D. (1987) Invertebrate Zoology. Fifth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, U.S.
  5. Roark, E.B., Guilderson, T.P., Dunbar, R.B. and Ingram, B.L. (2006) Radiocarbon-based ages and growth rates of Hawaiian deep-sea corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 327: 1 - 14.
  6. Veron, J.E.N. (2000) Corals of the World. Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, Townsville, Australia.
  7. CITES. (2000) Periodic Review of Animal Taxa in the Appendices. Sixteenth Meeting of the Animals Committee, Shepherdstown, U.S. Available at:

Image credit

Black coral, Leiopathes glaberrima, skeleton  
Black coral, Leiopathes glaberrima, skeleton

© D. M. Opresko

Dennis M. Opresko


Link to this photo

Arkive species - Black coral (Leiopathes glaberrima) Embed this Arkive thumbnail link ("portlet") by copying and pasting the code below.

Terms of Use - The displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to Arkive's online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. It may NOT be used within Apps.

Read more about



MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite Arkive images and videos and share them with friends.

Play the Team WILD game:

Team WILD, an elite squadron of science superheroes, needs your help! Your mission: protect and conserve the planet’s species and habitats from destruction.

Conservation in Action

Which species are on the road to recovery? Find out now »

Help us share the wonders of the natural world. Donate today!


Back To Top