Alderflies are fairly primitive insects, and were the first insect group to develop a pupal stage(4). The robust body is brown or black, with two pairs of brown or grey wings, which are folded back over the body when at rest and feature dark veins. The larvae are aquatic and have large heads with powerful jaws; there are three pairs of legs and then a pair of limb-like feathery gills on each segment of the body, except the very last segment which is tipped with a long spike-like gill (3).
Adults are found in May and June (1); they are weak fliers and last for just two to three days, during which time they do not feed (4). The emergence of adults is synchronised, so that large numbers of both sexes are present at the same time. Mating occurs at night, and females lay very large batches of eggs on plants that overhang the water. A number of females may choose to lay their eggs on the same plant, which may become covered in large expanses of invertebrates_freshwater eggs (4). After hatching, the predacious larvae fall into the water where they crawl around in search of food; they take other insects, small invertebrates and worms (4). After 1-2 years of development, the larva leaves the water, and digs into the soil or waterside debris to pupate. Two to three weeks later the adults emerge (2).
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