Greater Egyptian gerbil (Gerbillus pyramidum)

Greater Egyptian gerbil in desert habitat
Loading more images and videos...

Greater Egyptian gerbil fact file

Greater Egyptian gerbil description

GenusGerbillus (1)

The largest gerbil in Egypt (3), the greater Egyptian gerbil has orange-brown to tawny-grey fur on its upperparts (4), often with a darker stripe running down the spine and a white patch on the rump (2). In common with most other gerbils, the greater Egyptian gerbil has a creamy white belly (2), and large ears and claws (5). The long tail is pale brown on top and white underneath, with a black, bushy tuft at the end (2). The long hind feet measure roughly a quarter of the body length (5) and the soles of the feet are hairy (2).

Head-body length: 10 - 14 cm (2)
Tail length: 12 - 18 cm (2)
37 - 67 g (2)

Greater Egyptian gerbil biology

Typically solitary, due to limited food availability (7), the greater Egyptian gerbil is nocturnal, spending the daytime in a burrow (8). The burrow may have one to five entrances (2), which can be blocked with sand once the gerbil is inside (8).

Like many other gerbil species, the greater Egyptian gerbil forages at dusk and during the night for seeds (its preferred food) and other plant parts (2) (6). The greater Egyptian gerbil is known to store food reserves to cope with periods of food scarcity in its desert habitat; this often includes storing camel dung, which the gerbil picks through to find undigested seeds (2). It rarely ventures into open habitat because it is hunted by owls, but may also avoid shrubs due to the presence of snakes (9).

This species breeds between late winter and early spring, when increased rainfall boosts the amount of food available (10). The greater Egyptian gerbil gives birth to an average of four young at a time, after a gestation period of 25 days (4). The young, which are born naked and helpless with their eyes closed (5), are weaned after 25 to 30 days (8).


Greater Egyptian gerbil range

Despite its name, the greater Egyptian gerbil is found not only in Egypt, but has a range that stretches across North Africa, from Mali, through Niger, Chad and Sudan, to Egypt and Israel (1) (5).


Greater Egyptian gerbil habitat

The greater Egyptian gerbil occurs in a wide range of sandy desert habitats, showing a preference for unstable sand dunes with little vegetation cover (6).


Greater Egyptian gerbil status

Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Least Concern


Greater Egyptian gerbil threats

The greater Egyptian gerbil is currently not considered to be at risk of extinction, as it has a wide distribution, presumed large population, and is unlikely to be declining rapidly as there are no known major threats to the species (1). However, Gerbillus species tend to live in harsh environments, in habitat that is easily disturbed by human activity, which could pose a future threat to the greater Egyptian gerbil (5). It is possible that the growth of agricultural activities in its range, such as in the Nile Valley, may have negative impacts on the species (1).


Greater Egyptian gerbil conservation

The greater Egyptian gerbil is not known to be present in any protected areas and is not currently the subject of any specific conservation efforts (1).



Checked (24/08/10) by Dr Francis Gilbert, Associate Professor, University of Nottingham.

This species information was authored as part of the Arkive and Universities Scheme.


The state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth.
Active at night.


  1. IUCN Red List (April, 2010)
  2. Aulagnier, S., Haffner, P., Mitchell-Jones, A.J., Moutou, F. and Zima, J. (2009) Mammals of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. A&C Black Publishers Limited, London.
  3. Hoath, R. (2009) A Field Guide to the Mammals of Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo.
  4. Qumsiyeh, M.B. (1996) Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press, Texas.
  5. Nowak, R.M. (1999) Walker’s Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
  6. Abramsky, Z., Rosenzweig, M.L. and Pinshow, B. (1991) The shape of a gerbil isocline measured using principles of optimal habitat selection. Ecology, 72(1): 329-340.
  7. MacDonald, D.W. (2001) The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  8. Gerbil Information Page (April, 2010)
  9. Kotler, B.P., Blaustein, L. and Brown, J.S. (1992) Predator facilitation: the combined effect of snakes and owls on the foraging behaviour of gerbils. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 29: 199-206
  10. Soliman, S. and Mohallal, E.M. (2009) Patterns of reproduction in two sympatric gerbil species in arid Egypt. Integrative Zoology, 4: 248-253.

Image credit

Greater Egyptian gerbil in desert habitat  
Greater Egyptian gerbil in desert habitat

© David Hosking /

FLPA - images of nature
Pages Green House
Suffolk IP14 5QA
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 1728 861 113
Fax: +44 (0) 1728 860 222


Link to this photo

Arkive species - Greater Egyptian gerbil (Gerbillus pyramidum) Embed this Arkive thumbnail link ("portlet") by copying and pasting the code below.

Terms of Use - The displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to Arkive's online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. It may NOT be used within Apps.

Read more about



MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite Arkive images and videos and share them with friends.

Play the Team WILD game:

Team WILD, an elite squadron of science superheroes, needs your help! Your mission: protect and conserve the planet’s species and habitats from destruction.

Conservation in Action

Which species are on the road to recovery? Find out now »

Help us share the wonders of the natural world. Donate today!


Back To Top