Huemul were previously hunted by Native American Indians, but rarely and mainly for their skins, as they are much smaller and less abundant than the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), the only other native ungulate in the region (2) (3). Poaching is still a major threat to this species even though hunting is now illegal. Other threats include predation by pumas, foxes and domestic dogs, habitat destruction, fires and livestock ranching. Locally, over-grazing, construction, and recreational activities may prove detrimental to the mammals (2) (3). In addition, large areas of forest have been harvested and replaced by agriculture and exotic tree forestry operations (2), resulting in huemul populations becoming isolated and therefore more vulnerable to local extinction (6).