Philippine crocodile (Crocodylus mindorensis)

Radio tagged wild Philippine crocodile basking
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Philippine crocodile fact file

Philippine crocodile description

GenusCrocodylus (1)

The Philippine crocodile is one of the most endangered freshwater crocodiles (3). It is small with a relatively broad snout and thick bony plates on its back (2). Until recently, the Philippine crocodile was considered a subspecies of the very similar New Guinea crocodile (Crocodylus novaguineae) (4).

Male length: up to 3 m (2)

Philippine crocodile biology

Philippine crocodiles are thought to feed mainly on fish, invertebrates and small amphibians and reptiles (4), but very little else is known about the natural history or ecology of wild populations. In captivity, females build mound-nests at the end of the dry season from leaf litter and mud, upon which they lay a relatively small clutch of 7 - 14 eggs (4). Females show parental care of both the eggs and hatchlings (2).


Philippine crocodile range

Previously found throughout the Philippines, but now reduced to a small and highly fragmented population on a number of small islands (3).


Philippine crocodile habitat

Preferred habitats include freshwater marshes, the tributaries of large rivers and small lakes and ponds (3).


Philippine crocodile status

Classified as Critically Endangered (CR - A1c, C2a) on the IUCN Red List 2002 (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (6).

IUCN Red List species status – Critically Endangered


Philippine crocodile threats

The massive population decline of the Philippine crocodile was originally caused by excessive over-exploitation for commercial use (2). Today, habitat destruction is the most pressing threat to species survival, with rainforests being cleared throughout the region to make way for rice fields in an effort to cope with the human population explosion (2). Locals in this area are also in contact with the infamous esturine or 'saltwater' crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), which is one of the largest reptiles in the world and has a reputation as a man-eater. This factor undoubtedly contributes to local intolerance of any crocodile species, even the small Philippine crocodile, which is often killed when encountered (5). The very word for 'crocodile' in the Filipino language is a vile insult (7).


Philippine crocodile conservation

Next to the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis), the Philippine crocodile is considered to be the most endangered crocodilian in the world. Some authorities believe there may be less than 100 individuals left in the wild (3), although some wild habitat still remains. Urgent research is needed to assess the current status, in order to implement an effective management strategy for this remaining wild population (3). This species is protected from international trade by its listing on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), but there is only one officially protected area within the Philippines, and this is poorly enforced (3). At present, captive breeding takes place in a small programme run by the Silliman University and at the government-run Crocodile Farming Institute, which breeds crocodiles for commercial and conservation reasons (3). Sadly, there is currently little political will or local tolerance to save this ancient reptile in the wild and for the short term at least, captive breeding programmes may be the key to the, at least nominal, survival of this crocodile (3).

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

Find out more

For more information on the Philippine crocodile and its conservation, see:

For more information on the conservation of crocodiles, see:

For more information on crocodilians, see:



Authenticated (6/5/03) by Adam Britton,



A different race of a species, which is geographically separated from other populations of that species.


  1. IUCN Red List (October, 2002)
  2. (June, 2002)
  3. CITES (October, 2002)
  4. Crocodile SSC (June, 2002)
  5. Alderton, D. (1991) Crocodiles and Alligators of the World. Blandford, London.
  6. Ross, C., A. ed. (1989) Crocodiles and Alligators. Facts on File Inc, New York.
  7. Britton, A. (May, 2003) Pers. comm.

Image credit

Radio tagged wild Philippine crocodile basking  
Radio tagged wild Philippine crocodile basking

© Merlijn van Weerd

Merlijn van Weerd
Director, Mabuwaya Foundation,
ISU-Cabagan, 3328 Isabela
Tel: +63 (0) 78 6228001


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